Category Archives: Consumer goods

A capsulated history of Beecham’s pills

Beecham’s was the largest business of its kind in the world by 1913, with well over a million pills sold every day.

Thomas Beecham (1820 – 1907) was born in Oxfordshire to humble circumstances. He worked as a shepherd and used his knowledge of herbs to tend his animals.

A coarse yet charismatic character, Beecham began to manufacture pills from 1847. Beecham’s Pills, comprised of aloes, ginger and soap, had a mild laxative effect.

Beecham relocated to the booming mill towns of the North West of England. He sold his pills from a market stall in Wigan, Lancashire. He relocated to nearby St Helens in 1859. Until the late 1870s the business was run by the family and a small number of employees.

Thomas Beecham’s son Joseph (1848 – 1916) had effectively taken control of the company by the 1880s. Joseph Beecham was described as “[i]n personal appearance … the quiet, pipe-smoking, tweed-clad type of Englishman. He has neither business nor artistic pose, and is modesty itself.”

Beecham pills had the highest sale of any patent medicine in the world by 1885. A new factory, powered by electricity, was opened at St Helens in 1886.

250 million pills were sold in 1890, a quarter of all factory-made pills in Britain.

A factory was established in New York in 1890.

Thomas Beecham handed over full control of the business to Joseph in 1895.

The firm spent £100,000 a year on advertising by 1895. The factory had 120 employees, all men.

Between 1906 and 1913, American sales doubled.

Around 365 million pills were manufactured in 1912.

The business was sold to Philip Hill (1873 – 1944) in 1924. Hill was a skilled entrepreneur, and established a laboratory.

The company’s first pharmaceutical product, an aspirin-based cold and flu powder, was introduced in 1926.

The Veno Drug Company of Manchester, a manufacturer of cough syrup, was acquired in 1928.

Beecham’s Pills was incorporated as a public company in 1928.

Macleans, a toothpaste manufacturer and owner of Lucozade, was acquired in 1938. Also that year, Eno Proprietaries and County Perfumery, the manufacturer of Brylcreem, were both acquired, the latter for £580,000.

Eno Proprietaries, best known for its Fruit Salts product, provided Beecham with an international distribution network.

Following the death of Philip Hill in 1944, Stanley Holmes (1878 – 1961) became company chairman.

A single product, Lucozade, provided one third of Beecham’s British profits in 1949.

Beecham was dedicating a significant amount of revenue to product research and development by the 1950s.

H W Carter, the manufacturer of Ribena, was acquired in 1955. Thomas & Evans, the manufacturer of Corona soft drinks, was acquired in 1958.

Beecham was the second largest advertiser in Britain by 1960.

Horlicks was acquired in 1969.

Production of Beecham’s Pills ended in 1998. The manufacturer recommended consumers use Milk of Magnesia as a substitute.

Eno’s Fruit Salts

Eno’s Fruit Salts was one of the best known branded medicines in the world.

James Crossley Eno (1827 – 1915) served as an apprentice chemist before opening a small shop of his own on Groat Market in Newcastle upon Tyne.

Eno’s Fruit Salts were being marketed by 1874. First developed for drunken sailors, it was sold as a hangover and indigestion remedy. The sailors helped to establish the reputation of the product overseas.

Unable to cope with the scale of demand, Eno left Newcastle to establish a factory at New Cross, London in 1876. The firm employed 50 people by 1884.

An analysis in the British Medical Journal in 1903 found Eno’s Fruit Salt to consist of sodium bicarbonate, tartaric acid and citric acid.

Harold F Ritchie (1881 – 1933) of Toronto was the agent for sales in Canada from 1907.

Eno died in 1915. His estate had a gross value of £1.6 million.

The business was acquired by Harold F Ritchie in 1928 for a reported £1.5 million.

Eno Proprietaries Limited had a paid-up share capital of £2 million in 1934. By this time Eno’s Fruit Salts was one of the best known proprietary medicines in the world.

Eno’s Fruit Salts were sold in 83 countries. It was advertised in 73 countries with 26 different languages.

The principal factory was in London, but there were two large factories in North America, and nine smaller factories across the rest of the world.

Eno Proprietaries was acquired by Beecham for £1 million in 1938.

Eno’s Fruit Salts remained a major Beecham product as late as the 1970s.

Now owned by GlaxoSmithKline, Eno is still widely sold across the world as an antacid for the relief of indigestion. Latin America and Asia are its largest markets.