Fillerys Toffees was established in 1923 by a consortium of four investors led by Robert Harold Mayhew (1874 – 1965). The factory was located on Warwick Road in Greet, south Birmingham.
The site covered four acres by 1927, and due to increasing sales, 24 hour production was introduced from 1930.
Fillerys Toffees was incorporated as a public company in 1934. Herbert E Morgan was chairman. The company had an authorised and issued capital of £100,000 by 1935. Around 300 workers were employed.
Fillerys led the toffee industry as one of the most efficient producers by 1942. Fillerys targeted the higher quality market.
During the Second World War, most of the factory was given over to munitions manufacturing for the war effort.
Under a Government scheme to encourage industrial efficiency, Fillerys Toffees were produced under contract by Rowntree of York between 1942 and 1946.
The company had established nationwide sales distribution by 1949.
The end of sugar rationing in 1954 saw a boom in confectionery sales. Fillerys Toffees won a prestigious and valuable contract to supply confectionery for Marks & Spencer.
The sugar confectionery boom was over by the end of the 1950s, as increasing prosperity saw consumers increasingly switch to chocolate products. As a result, the industry began to consolidate in order to reduce costs.
Fillerys was acquired by J A & P Holland of Southport in 1960 to create the largest toffee manufacturer in Britain, and possibly the world.
Cavenham Foods acquired J A & P Holland in 1965. The Fillerys factory was closed down in March 1966, and production was transferred to Southport. The reason given was that the Fillerys factory did not have room for expansion. About 230 workers lost their jobs.
This post focuses on the history of Mars confectionery in the UK. Many of the products for which Mars are best known, such as Skittles, Twix and Galaxy chocolate, were originally developed and sold in Britain.
Franklin Clarence Mars (1883 – 1934) was the son of a gristmill operator. He entered into the wholesale confectionery business in Tacoma, Washington, from 1910.
Mars relocated to Minneapolis, Minnesota, in 1920, where he formed the Mar-O-Bar company and began to manufacture chocolate bars. The business struggled until his son, Forrest Edward Mars (1904 – 1999), suggested that Mars create a chocolate bar influenced by a malted milkshake. On the back of this idea, the Milky Way bar was introduced from 1923.
The Milky Way bar was an immediate success. Sales exploded without the help of advertising. The product enjoyed a cost discount against rival chocolate bars, due to a filling made of relatively low-cost nougat.
Mars was one of the largest confectionery manufacturers in America by 1930. The Snickers bar was launched in 1930, and 3 Musketeers was launched in 1932.
Forrest E Mars graduated from Yale University with a degree in industrial engineering in 1928. He initially worked as a superintendent at his father’s factory. Meanwhile, he read voraciously on business methods, especially those used by DuPont, a large chemicals company, and business tycoon John D Rockefeller (1839 – 1937).
A brash and ambitious man, it wasn’t long before Forrest Mars clashed with his father. He deemed management as lax, and considered product quality to be inconsistent. Mars resented how his father cut costs by using low-quality chocolate in his products. He also harboured ambitions for Mars to expand its overseas sales.
Forrest Mars demanded a one third stake in the company. His father refused, but in recognition of his contribution he was given $50,000 and the foreign rights to Mars products, and told to establish a business for himself.
To gain an understanding of European confectionery manufacturing methods, Mars worked incognito at the plants of Tobler and Nestle in Switzerland, a case of industrial espionage he would later openly confess to.
Establishment of Mars UK
Mars took what he learned in Switzerland, and leased a single room factory in Slough, a small industrial town outside London, from May 1932. England was chosen for the European base because Mars could speak the language. He initially employed a staff of eight.
Mars understood that British confectionery tastes differed to those of his native land. His first product was an Anglicised version of the Milky Way, which he called the Mars bar. Introduced from August 1932, the product was initially entirely handmade. Instead of the Hershey chocolate used in the US, the Mars bar used a Cadbury chocolate coating, and the toffee was sweeter.
The business prospered quickly. Within a year, two million Mars bars had been sold, and 100 people were employed. The product was advertised nationwide by 1934. Mars boosted sales by advertising his confectionery as a nutritious food product.
The British Milky Way, a different product to the American Milky Way, was launched in 1935. Not all of the early product introductions were a success; short lived confectionery lines included the So Big bar and a vanilla version of the Mars bar.
Forrest Mars was a great believer in scientific management as a driver of profitability. He also had a fanatical dedication to quality. However he could also be cruel and demanding, and on occasions he demonstrated a volatile temper. However for upholding his high standards his managers were rewarded handsomely.
Franklin Mars died in 1934 and control of Mars Inc passed to his widow, Ethel V Mars (1888 – 1945).
Maltesers were introduced in Britain from 1936.
Following the outbreak of the Second World War, Mars returned to the United States. There he established a business producing M&Ms, a product that he had developed based on Smarties, a British confection manufactured by Rowntree.
Rowntree agreed not to compete with M&Ms in the US in exchange for the production rights to the Mars bar in South Africa, Canada and Australia.
Milky Way and Maltesers production was halted in Britain during the Second World War, but the manufacture of Mars bars was continued.
The Bounty bar was launched in the United Kingdom in 1951. It had similarities to Mounds, an American chocolate bar produced by Peter Paul.
Mars was the third largest chocolate manufacturer in Britain by 1960.
Starburst (originally known as Opal Fruits) and the Galaxy chocolate bar were introduced in the United Kingdom in 1960.
The “Mars a day” slogan was introduced in Britain from 1960.
Forrest Mars gains control of Mars Inc
Forrest Mars gained control of Mars Inc in 1964. An egalitarian, he quickly dismantled the executive dining room and sold off the art collection. Private offices were opened up with glass panels to improve communication. Executives were obliged to clock in and out the same as everyone else. However to compensate for his strict demands, Mars raised salaries by 30 percent. Mars also increased the proportion of chocolate in each bar.
Forrest Mars resigned as president and chief executive officer of Mars Inc in 1967. In his place he appointed Alfred Baxter (1913 – 1986), a Unilever veteran from England.
Mars had opened a second factory in Slough, located on Liverpool Road, by 1966.
The Twix was first produced in the United Kingdom from 1967.
Mars confectionery was the third largest advertiser in Britain in 1969, and the Mars bar was the highest-selling confectionery line in the country. It was likely that the Mars confectionery business in Britain was larger than its American counterpart. Unions were excluded from the business, but employee welfare benefits were some of the best in the country.
Forrest Mars retired in 1969. He handed ownership of the company over to his two sons in 1973.
Skittles were first introduced in Britain in the 1970s.
Mars won a Queen’s Award for Export in 1979. Chocolate bars were exported to over 100 different countries. The Slough factory employed 4,000 people.
Slough produced two million Mars bars a day by 1982. It was the highest selling chocolate confectionery in the United Kingdom, with annual sales of £100 million.
Mars announced it would close its Liverpool Road factory, with the loss of 500 jobs, over the course of two years, in 2005. Production of Twix bars was relocated to France and Germany. Starburst manufacturing was transferred to the Czech Republic.
The Dundee Road plant received a £45 million modernisation investment, and continues to produce Mars bars, Snickers, Galaxy and Maltesers.
Mars opened a new £7 million research and development facility at Slough in 2012.
Slough is the European headquarters for Mars confectionery. The Dundee Road plant employed 1,000 people and produced 2.5 million Mars bars a day in 2013.
Mars remains a privately-held company controlled by the Mars family. Research by Statista indicated that Mars had the largest share of the global chocolate market in 2016, at 14.4 percent.
H J Packer was the largest low-cost chocolate manufacturer in the world.
Packer and Burrows
Edward Packer (1848 – 1887) was a Quaker who worked for J S Fry & Sons of Bristol, a chocolate manufacturer, in the 1870s.
Edward Packer left Fry to commence chocolate manufacture for himself from 1881. He worked from his house at 11 Armory Square, and was assisted by his wife. Soon he employed eight people.
Packer entered into partnership with Henry John Burrows (born 1853). Unfortunately, trade immediately declined, and all employees other than members of the Packer family had to be dismissed.
Burrows acquired full control of the business from 1884. Burrows added his own initials to the company name, and began trading as H J Packer & Co.
Caleb Bruce Cole
Caleb Bruce Cole (1862 -1912) was a confectionery salesman in Bristol. He was impressed during his contact with H J Packer & Co, and borrowed £1,000 from his father to acquire the business in 1886. Around nine people were employed.
The business began to grow from around 1889. Cole identified a gap in the market, and began to manufacture high quality chocolate at an affordable price. The chocolates found a keen market among children.
Cole subverted the notion that low-cost food production need sacrifice standards of cleanliness or provision for the workforce.
In 1896 Cole was joined by his brother Horace, and William John Mansfield (1846 -1912) was employed as general manager.
A new factory was opened at Greenbank, Bristol in 1903. It covered four acres and was the largest low-cost chocolate factory in the world. 450 people were employed. Greenbank was situated on a major railway line, which allowed for convenient distribution.
H J Packer & Co became a limited company from 1908.
Carsons Ltd of Glasgow, with a share capital of £50,000, was acquired in January 1912. Trading at the highest end of the chocolate market, Carsons had been the first company to introduce tray chocolates.
Caleb Bruce Cole died in June 1912. A progressive man, he was described as quiet and likeable. He left an estate valued at £259,937.
H J Packer & Co had a capital of £750,000 and employed 1,000 people by 1912.
A dedicated Carsons chocolate factory was established in Shortwood, Bristol, from 1914, in order to supply the South and West of England markets.
Packers was the fourth largest chocolate manufacturer in Britain by 1922, and the largest manufacturer of low-cost chocolate in the world.
The company struggled during the Great Depression.
The Carsons factory was divested in 1960 due to overcapacity.
The company name was changed to Carsons Ltd from 1962. The Carsons brand had become well-known as Britain’s largest producer of chocolate liqueurs, filled with some of the leading spirits, liqueur and fortified wine brands in the world.
Until 1961 liqueur chocolates could only be sold from licensed premises. This opening up of the market provided an opportunity.
Acquisition by Cavenham
Cavenham Foods, managed by James Goldsmith (1933 – 1997), gained control of Carsons in 1964.
Goldsmith rebuilt and modernised the Carsons plant. He then retired all of the Carsons chocolate lines except for liqueurs, the only sector of the market which was experiencing a growth in sales. The liqueur chocolate market was largely dominated by imported brands such as Lindt, Ringer, Rademaker and Trumpf.
Carsons held over 29 percent of the liqueur chocolate market by 1966. This was achieved with minimal advertising. Instead Carson’s benefited from the advertising campaigns of spirits brands that were inside their chocolates; names such as Harvey’s Bristol Cream and Hennessey cognac.
Carsons liqueurs were being marketed under the Famous Names brand by 1966.
Elizabeth Shaw, an upmarket chocolate manufacturer, was acquired in 1968.
Carsons held over 40 percent of the British chocolate liqueur market by the late 1970s.
Cavenham Confectionery was subject to a management buyout in 1981, and the company was renamed Famous Names Ltd. It was acquired by Imperial Tobacco in 1985.
Management bought control of Famous Names Ltd in 1988, and the company was renamed Elizabeth Shaw Ltd. Elizabeth Shaw Ltd was acquired by Leaf of Finland in 1990.
Elizabeth Shaw closed its outdated Greenbank factory in 2006. Production was relocated to factories across Britain and Europe.
Epps was the leading brand of cocoa in Victorian Britain.
Dr John Epps (1805 – 1869) was the son of a Calvinist London merchant. Dr Epps became one of the pioneers of homeopathy in Britain. He established premises at Great Russell Street, Bloomsbury, and was joined by his brother James (1821 – 1907) from 1837.
Epps’ cocoa was first sold in 1839 for the use of patients for whom tea and coffee were restricted. It was an instant cocoa powder, made by adding hot water or milk.
The almost prohibitive duty on cocoa was greatly reduced in 1832, allowing the market to grow exponentially. Easily prepared cocoa had been difficult to procure, and the fat in the raw material was unpalatable for many. Dr John Epps discovered a way to make it more appetising, mixing the cocoa with 20 percent West Indies arrowroot and 13 percent sugar.
Dr John Epps was not the first person to invent soluble cocoa powder, but James Epps was largely responsible for introducing the product to the mass market. He heavily advertised Epps’ Cocoa, and had introduced a distinctive slogan, “grateful and comforting” by 1855.
Epps’ Cocoa was initially produced under contract by Daniel Dunn of Pentonville Road, who had invented instant cocoa powder in 1819.
James Epps had established his own factory at 398 Euston Road, London by 1863. He installed his nephew, Hahnemann Epps (1843 – 1916), as manager.
A new steam-powered works was established at Holland Street, Blackfriars from 1878. Epps was the largest cocoa powder producer in Britain, with an output of nearly five million pounds (2.3 million kg) a year. At its peak the firm processed half of all cocoa imports into Britain.
A short and slight man, James Epps kept a low public profile, unlike his gregarious brother John. He was known only for his work in business, and had few outside interests. He allowed his portrait to be taken only once, and he never granted an interview or issued a public statement. He was a hard worker, keen on a bargain, and somewhat controlling. Despite his massive wealth he lived in an unfashionable area of London.
The business was converted into a private joint stock limited company known as James Epps & Co in 1893. The directors were James Epps, Hahnemann Epps and James Epps Jr (1856 – 1905), and the company had a capital of £200,000. No shares were offered to the public, and the company remained under family control.
James Epps Jr (also known as Willie James Epps), the only son of James Epps, died of a heart attack in Jamaica in 1905. His gross estate was valued at £162,422.
James Epps died in 1907 and his gross estate was valued at £735,387. This was a larger estate than contemporaries in the food industry such as the mustard magnate Jeremiah James Colman (1830 – 1898), instant custard producer Alfred Bird (1849 – 1922) or James Horlick (1844 – 1921).
The estate was inherited by his nieces and nephews, principally James Washington Epps (1874 -1955). Hahnemann Epps became chairman and James W Epps became managing director of James Epps & Co.
Taylor Brothers Ltd, a London cocoa manufacturer, was acquired in 1907.
Epps’ Cocoa powder had been reformulated to include 44 percent sugar, 40 percent cocoa and 16 percent West Indies arrowroot by 1924.
Rowntree of York acquired James Epps & Co for £70,000 in 1926.
The Epps factory was closed in 1930, and the manufacture of Epps products was transferred to Whitefields Ltd of Plaistow.
R S Murray & Co introduced American style caramels to Britain, but remains best-known for Murray Mints.
Robert Stuart Murray (1854 – 1912), a confectionery salesman from Chicago, Illinois, found a ready sale for his American-style caramels, made from milk or cream and sugar, in Victorian England.
Strong demand for the imported caramels saw Murray establish a factory at 67 Turnmill Street, Clerkenwell, London in 1882. He was joined in partnership by Charles Hubbard and Walter Michael Price (1826 – 1919).
£8,000 worth of caramel producing machinery was imported from America. The factory employed 300 workers, and five to six tons of confectionery were produced on a daily basis.
R S Murray & Co was registered as a limited company with a capital of £50,000 in 1900.
The company had diversified into chocolate manufacturing by 1906.
There was a strike at R S Murray & Co in 1911. The largely female strikers were supported by the women’s’ rights campaigner Mary Macarthur (1880 – 1921).
Robert Stuart Murray died in 1912 with an estate valued at £22,844. Herbert John Norton (1874 – 1958) was nominated managing director.
The works covered over three acres by 1914, and a staff of 1,500 to 2,000 was employed.
After the First World War, Norton was nominated chairman.
A chocolate manufacturing subsidiary was established in Australia in 1920, located at De Carle Street, East Brunswick, a suburb of Melbourne.
A manufacturing presence was established in Ireland as a joint venture called Clarnico Murray from 1926.
The Australian factory employed over 300 people by 1931. Rowntree of York and Murray merged their Australian interests into a joint venture from 1934.
Clarnico was the largest sugar confectionery manufacturer in Britain.
Clarke, Nickolls & Coombs was founded as a peel manufacturer at Hackney Wick in 1872. At the instigation of Robert Coombs (1836 – 1919), the partners established a confectionery subsidiary called Clarnico.
The company employed 300 people by 1881. Clarnico was one of the largest confectionery companies in Britain by 1886.
Clarke, Nickolls & Coombs was incorporated as a public company with a share capital of £80,000 from 1887.
The company introduced a profit-sharing scheme for its workforce from 1890. After paying a six percent dividend, the company split the remaining profit equally between the shareholders and the workforce. 840 people shared a total of £1,700 in 1893.
1,000 men were employed in 1891. Around 1,300 people were employed by 1892, around 1,500 in 1896, and 2,000 by 1899.
The factory site covered five acres by 1896.
Over 3,000 people were employed by 1911.
The Clarnico Mint Cream had been introduced by 1912.
Clarnico was the largest sugar confectionery company in Britain during the interwar period. Over 700 different varieties of sweets were produced. The Clarnico site was the largest sugar confectionery factory in Britain.
Clarnico formed a joint venture with R S Murray & Co to establish an Irish factory from 1926.
Clarnico made a profit loss for the 1967-8 year. The company had failed to adapt, and it was acquired by London-rival Trebor for £900,000 in 1969.
Clarnico Murray held around ten percent of the Irish confectionery market by 1969.
The Clarnico factory in London was closed down in 1973.
The Irish manufacturing presence was closed down in 1974, and the market was thereafter served by imports from Britain.
Trebor was acquired by Cadbury for £120 million in 1989.
Cadbury divested its British sugar sweets subsidiary to Tangerine Confectionery for £52 million in 2008.
Clarnico Mint Creams are still manufactured by Tangerine Confectionery as of 2019.
A J Caley of Norwich was a leading British chocolate manufacturer.
Albert Jarman Caley (1829 – 1895), the son of a silk mercer, opened a chemist shop on High Street, Windsor in 1853. He relocated to London Street, Norwich, where his brother already lived, in 1857.
A J Caley began to manufacture soft drinks from 1862. Soft drinks manufacturing was Caley’s largest branch of trade by 1881.
Due to the seasonal nature of the soft drinks trade, Caley began to produce drinking chocolate from 1883, followed by eating chocolate from 1886.
A J Caley died in 1895 with an estate valued at £22,000.
The firm was converted into a limited liability company, A J Caley & Son, in 1898, with capital of £120,000.
Christmas cracker production commenced from 1898.
700 workers were employed by 1904.
The Caley works in Norwich were built after the First World War at a cost of over £500,000, and employed 1,000 people.
A J Caley & Son was acquired by the Lever Brothers-controlled United Africa Company in 1919. Capital was increased from £120,000 to £1 million. Four new factories were completed at a cost of around £500,000 in 1920, which allowed production capacity to treble.
A J Caley & Son was perhaps best known for its Easter Egg production by this period.
A J Caley & Son was loss-making by the early 1930s, and the factory was about to be closed.
John Mackintosh & Sons of Halifax acquired A J Caley & Son for £138,000 in 1932. Caley mostly manufactured chocolate, but also Christmas crackers and soft drinks.
Mackintosh was motivated by the opportunity to increase its productive capacity, which had outgrown their own Halifax site. In the first year of acquisition the Caley works was greatly expanded.
In order to make A J Caley profitable, hundreds of product lines and several departments were discontinued, and some employee redundancies had to be made. However there were nearly 1,500 employees at Norwich by 1935, more than ever before.
Caley’s expertise in chocolate manufacture allowed Mackintosh to introduce new product lines such as Rolo and Quality Street.
Caley initially operated under independent management, but control was brought under the Mackintosh umbrella from 1939.
The Caley factory was destroyed by bombing during the Second World War, and had to be rebuilt.
The Caley’s brand name was phased out in the early 1960s.
The Norwich factory was closed in 1994, and demolished ten years later.
Barker & Dobson became one of the largest confectioners in Britain.
Joseph Dobson (1801 – 1864) opened a sweet shop at 75 Paradise Street, Liverpool in 1834. Using the maiden name of his wife, he commenced trade as Barker & Dobson.
Dobson was declared bankrupt in 1861. One of the trustees of the estate was George Bassett (1818 – 1886), confectioner of Sheffield.
Barker & Dobson had relocated to 6 Duke Street by 1870. Their main business was in imported French confectionery.
The business was taken over by Henry Dobson Jacobson (1867 – 1961), grandson of Joseph Dobson, in 1889.
Jacobson was to prove the impetus behind the subsequent growth of Barker & Dobson. He relocated the business to Hope Street and entered into confectionery and chocolate manufacturing. Over 100 workers were employed in sweet and chocolate manufacture by 1897. Their leading product line was Walnut Toffee, with sales of over 2000 lbs (over 900 kg) a week.
Barker & Dobson operated three confectionery shops by this time, and these specialised in confectionery imported from France, Germany and America.
Jacobson was a great believer in the power of advertising, and bought space in newspapers, and invested in enticing product labels and packaging.
Barker & Dobson had established a factory and head office at Franklin Place, in the Everton district of Liverpool, by 1914.
Barker & Dobson was incorporated as a public company, in order to fund expansion, from 1919.
Premises had been established at London as well as Liverpool by 1924.
A disused tram depot on Whitefield Road, Liverpool was acquired and converted into a factory in 1926. The new factory adjoined the Franklin Place site.
Barker & Dobson had a authorised share capital of £500,000 by 1928. Over 1,200 people were employed.
H D Jacobson became chairman, and appointed his brother, Percy Isidore Jacobson (1873 – 1961), as managing director.
Sale to Scribbans-Kemp
Barker & Dobson remained profitable after the Second World War, but the company began to struggle to meet demand for its products, and required an increase in capital.
Barker & Dobson was acquired by Scribbans-Kemp, a large cake and biscuit manufacturer, in 1952. Scribbans-Kemp established a new sugar confectionery factory and offices in 1955.
Bensons, a sweet manufacturer based in Bury, Lancashire, was acquired in 1956-7.
P I Jacobson died in 1961 with a gross estate of £353,003. H D Jacobson also died in 1961 with a gross estate of £865,359.
Fryer & Co of Nelson, Lancashire was acquired for £1.2 million in 1965. The company had invented the jelly baby, and produced the Victory V cough sweet.
Scribbans-Kemp changed its name to S K Holdings in the early 1970s. However its name was soon changed to that of its better-known subsidiary, Barker & Dobson.
Waller & Hartley of Blackpool, with the Hacks cough sweet brand, was acquired in 1972.
Overseas sales were important to Barker & Dobson, and 18 percent of production was exported to 86 different countries in 1972. The principal foreign markets were the Americas and Canada. Everton Mints remained the highest-selling product line.
The five confectionery factories in Lancashire employed over 2,000 people by 1974.
The Blackpool and Southport factories were closed with the loss of 450 jobs in 1974.
Barker & Dobson distributed Ferrero products such as Tic-Tacs for the British market from 1974.
Barker & Dobson suffered heavy losses in the mid-1970s. A stake in Hacks Malaysia Senirian Berhad was divested in 1976.
Barker & Dobson was forced to remove the 0.2 percent chloroform component from its Victory V sweet recipe from 1981, due to a change in the law. Victory V sales immediately slumped by 25 percent.
The Barker & Dobson factory in Dublin was closed in 1982.
The Whitefield Road factory was closed in 1983, with the loss of about 360 jobs. The ageing factory would have needed extensive repairs if it was to remain operational. 200 administrative staff remained at the Whitefield Road offices.
Only Bury and Nelson remained as large factories within the company. There were also smaller factories in Dundee and east London.
Barker & Dobson held the British distribution rights for Marabou products, such as the Daim/Dime chocolate bar, by 1984.
Barker & Dobson sold its newsagents business, with 150 outlets, to Guinness for £10 million in 1985. A high-class chocolate shop on Bond Street, London was retained.
Keiller, the butterscotch and marmalade manufacturer, was acquired for £4.9 million in 1985.
The highest-selling product lines in 1985 were Hacks, Victory V and Everton Mints.
The Whitefield Road offices were closed in 1985, and headquarters were relocated to Bury.
Barker & Dobson acquired Budgens supermarkets, with 148 outlets, from Booker McConnell for £80 million in 1986.
Alma Holdings acquired the heavily loss-making confectionery subsidiary of Barker & Dobson for £10 million in 1988. The deal created the fourth largest sugar confectionery manufacturer in Britain.
Alma entered into receivership in 1992, and Hacks and Victory V were sold to Cadbury for £3.1 million, who relocated production to their Trebor Bassett factories. Barker & Dobson and Keiller were acquired by Portfolio Foods for £3 million.
The Barker & Dobson brand is currently owned by Tangerine Confectionery in Britain, although as of 2019 it appears to be inactive. Hacks remains a leading confectionery brand in Malaysia.
Trebor is best known today for its Extra Strong and Softmints. It also introduced Refreshers, Fruit Salad and Black Jack sweets. Trebor was the largest sugar confectionery manufacturer in Britain when it was acquired by Cadbury in 1989.
Trebor was founded in 1907 when William Woodcock (a sugar boiler), Robert Robertson (a grocer), Sydney Herbert Marks (a salesman) and Thomas King (a grocer) each invested £100 in a partnership to manufacture boiled sweets.
The firm originally traded as Robertson & Woodcock. Its factory in Forest Gate, London, was called the Trebor Works.
Horse-drawn vans were replaced by motor vehicles for distribution purposes from 1915.
Sydney J Marks (1900 – 1980), the son of S H Marks, was sent to Germany to learn the latest production methods in 1925. Information he acquired on powdered sugar enabled Trebor to introduce its two most famous products. Refreshers were introduced from 1935, and Extra Strong Peppermints were launched in 1937.
A factory was opened on a five-acre site in Chesterfield in 1939. The site was chosen as it lowered distribution costs in the Midlands and the North of England. Initially around 300 people were employed.
S J Marks became managing director in 1941. By this time the company was controlled by the Marks family. S J Marks was a brilliant but autocratic businessman.
Sugar was rationed during the Second World War, so a sugar and lard mixture was used to make the product go further.
Sharps and Trebor were merged in 1968 to form Trebor Sharps, a mid-sized confectioner based at Woodford Green, Essex.
An overseas trade flourished, and by the late 1960s, the company was the largest exporter of sugar confectionery in Britain, sending 15 percent of production to nearly 70 countries. More mints were sold in Nigeria than in the domestic market, and the United States was the largest export destination.
Clarnico, the confectionery subsidiary of Clarke, Nickolls & Coombs, was acquired for £750,000 in 1969. The acquisition made Trebor the fourth largest confectionery company in Britain.
Sydney J Marks became president of Trebor from 1970, and his son, John Marks (1930 – 2012), became chairman.
Guided by his Christian convictions, John Marks developed a paternalistic relationship with his workforce. The business banned night shifts from 1981, in the belief that it was disruptive to domestic life.
The loss-making confectionery arm of Maynards, best known for wine gums, was acquired for £8.1 million in 1986.
Trebor was the leading sugar confectionery manufacturer in Britain by 1986, with a twelve percent market share, including 50 percent of all hard mint sales. It was the market leader in boiled sugar sweets and branded mints.
Unfortunately the business found itself under increasing pressure from the larger confectionery firms, with larger marketing budgets. Trebor was sold to Cadbury for £120 million in 1989. The Marks family gifted 15 percent of the sale value to their workforce.
Many of the 3,000 strong workforce were to lose their jobs. Redundancy costs were low, as many workers were only employed on three-month contracts.
Cadbury recouped some of its takeover costs by divesting Trebor House, the head office and factory in North London.
The Chesterfield factory was closed with the loss of 245 jobs in 2005. The closure was blamed on an outdated plant and declining sales of Fruit Salads and Black Jacks.
George Payne & Co was the largest tea merchants in the world. The business is best-known today for Poppets, a chocolate-coated toffee confectionery.
George Daniel Payne (1845 – 1927) was a tea buyer and blender for Brooke Bond.
A forthright figure, Payne established George Payne & Co, tea and coffee blenders, from 1896. The factory was at Queen Elizabeth Street, Tower Bridge, Bermondsey. James Finlay & Co, a Scottish tea merchant, held a 30 percent stake in the venture.
George Payne & Co blended and packed own-label tea for J Sainsbury, a grocery chain, under the Red Label name, from 1903.
Expansion into cocoa in 1905 led to their entrance into the confectionery market from 1910. To accommodate increased production, the Tower Bridge factory was extended to five storeys.
George Payne & Co was the largest tea merchant business in the world by 1910.
A new confectionery factory was opened at Croydon Road, Beddington in 1919. It prospered by concentrating on a limited number of product lines.
George Daniel Payne died in 1927 and left a gross estate valued at £81,491.
The Tower Bridge factory was rebuilt following a destructive fire in 1929.
The Poppets trademark was first registered in 1936. Poppets quickly became a leading product for the firm. The firm continued to have a significant own-label tea and coffee packaging business.
George Payne & Co employed 500 people by the late 1930s.
Robert Henry Payne (1892 – 1946), chairman and managing director of George Payne & Co, died with an estate valued at £163,567 in 1946.
Following the death of R H Payne, James Finlay & Co increased its stake in the firm to take overall control.
The Tower Bridge site was closed in 1990 and tea processing was relocated to a new site near Doncaster, Yorkshire.
Just Brazils was a top ten boxed chocolate by 1996, and Poppets was the eighth highest selling children’s confectionery.
The Payne’s confectionery business was acquired by Northern Foods for £10 million in 1998.
George Payne & Co was the 48th largest confectionery manufacturer in the world in 2000. It had an annual turnover of $120 million, and employed 500 people.
The Beddington factory was closed in 2001, with the loss of 157 jobs. The site was outdated, with limited potential for growth, and production was relocated to Leicester.
Northern Foods sold its confectionery arm, including Fox’s glacier mints as well as Payne’s, to Big Bear for £9.4 million in 2003.