Read part I of my history of Marks & Spencer here.
Marks & Spencer employed 28,403 people in 1955.
Marks & Spencer was valued at £435 million by 1963, which made it the fifth most highly valued stock in Britain. This value had risen to £615 million by 1970. Marks & Spencer overtook Woolworth as Britain’s leading retailer in terms of both sales and profits in 1968.
Marks & Spencer employed 37,094 people in 1972, placing it just outside the top 50 employers in Britain. The company enjoyed a turnover of £360 million and employed capital worth £160 million in 1973.
Marks & Spencer began to sell frozen food from 1972. Convenience food was being sold at 100 stores by 1973.
Marks & Spencer began to look overseas for growth from the early 1970s. The company acquired a 50 percent stake in three Canadian clothing retailers in 1973. A controlling interest was acquired three years later.
A store was opened in Paris in 1975. This store ranked among the company’s top ten worldwide in terms of sales and profitability by the mid-1990s.
M&S, valued at US$3.7 billion, had the fifth highest market capitalization of any public company in Europe by 1982, and sales of just under £2.2 billion.
The first non-family member was appointed as chairman and chief executive in 1984.
The first location outside a town centre was opened in Gateshead in 1986.
The company made two American acquisitions, Brooks Brothers, the clothing retailer, and Kings Supermarkets in 1988. Brooks Brothers cost Marks & Spencer $750 million, and included 47 stores.
Marks & Spencer operated 275 stores in Canada and eight stores in France by 1990. That year the company opened its first store in Spain.
Marks & Spencer employed 55,750 people by 1992. It was the twentieth largest company employer in Britain.
Marks & Spencer was the only retailer in the world with a AAA credit rating in 1994. The retailer had a reputation for quality and value for money. It boasted a turnover of over £5 billion and 679 stores.
Profits took a sudden slump in 1999. Excessive profit margins had eroded customer loyalty. The company withdrew from Canada that year.
Marks & Spencer announced a radical restructuring of its operations in 2001. The UK business was revamped and its US retail operations and company owned stores in Europe were divested. Brooks Brothers was sold for $225 million, less than a third of what M&S paid for it thirteen years previously.
Marks & Spencer was relegated from the FTSE 100 in September 2019.